Findings from Mauna Loa and Beyond - a java applet that uses CO2 concentration monitoring data from around the world with graphing tools built in.
Human-caused Sources of Carbon Dioxide - a flash program that allows exploration of various potential sources of Carbon dioxide.
2017-02-24. Amazon Deforestation, Once Tamed, Comes Roaring Back.
By Hiroko Tabuchi, Claire Rigby, and Jeremy White, The New York Times.
2016-03-23. Current Carbon Emissions Unprecedented in 66 Million Years.
By JoAnna Wendel, EoS Earth and Space Science News (AGU).
2016-03-09. Record annual increase of carbon dioxide observed at Mauna Loa for 2015.
2016-01-21. What’s behind the Arctic’s increasing carbon dioxide fluctuations?
By Sid Perkins, Science (AAAS).
2014-09-21. Global Rise Reported in 2013 Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Excerpt: Global emissions of greenhouse gases jumped 2.3 percent in 2013 to record levels, scientists reported Sunday, in the latest indication that the world remains far off track in its efforts to control global warming. The emissions growth last year was a bit slower than the average growth rate of 2.5 percent over the past decade, and much of the dip was caused by an economic slowdown in China, which is the world’s single largest source of emissions.... In the United States, emissions rose 2.9 percent, after declining in recent years. The new numbers, reported by a tracking initiative called the Global Carbon Project and published in the journal Nature Geoscience, came on the eve of a United Nations summit meeting meant to harness fresh political ambition in tackling climate change. ...The nations of the world have agreed to try to limit the warming to 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit, which would require that emissions slow down and then largely stop in the next 30 years or so. If they continue on their present course through the century, scientists say, the earth could warm by as much as 10 degrees Fahrenheit above the preindustrial level, which would likely be incompatible with human civilization in its current form.... http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/22/science/earth/scientists-report-global-rise-in-greenhouse-gas-emissions.html. By Justin Gillis, The New York Times.
2014-09-09. CO2 levels in atmosphere rising at dramatically faster rate, U.N. report warns. For GSS Climate Change chapter 6. Excerpt: ...Concentrations of nearly all the major greenhouse gases reached historic highs in 2013, reflecting ...a diminishing ability of the world’s oceans and plant life to soak up the excess carbon put into the atmosphere by humans, according to data released early Tuesday by the United Nations’ meteorological advisory body. The latest figures from the World Meteorological Organization’s monitoring network are considered particularly significant because they reflect not only the amount of carbon pumped into the air by humans, but also the complex interaction between man-made gases and the natural world. Historically, about half of the pollution from human sources has been absorbed by the oceans and by terrestrial plants, preventing temperatures from rising as quickly as they otherwise would, scientists say. “If the oceans and the biosphere cannot absorb as much carbon, the effect on the atmosphere could be much worse,” said Oksana Tarasova, a scientist and chief of the WMO’s Global Atmospheric Watch program, which collects data from 125 monitoring stations worldwide. ...Global concentrations of methane — a byproduct of farming and fossil-fuel extraction, as well as numerous natural processes — are now 2.5 times as high as they were at the start of the industrial age, in the mid-18th century, the report said. The organization’s annual report included, for the first time, figures on the increasing acidification of the oceans stemming from higher levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. ...the rate of acidification is now “unprecedented, at least over the past 300,000 years,” the WMO said. ...In an indirect way, the acidification of seawater also exacerbates climate change: The oceans over time become less capable of absorbing carbon from the air, allowing more of the greenhouse gas to accumulate in the atmosphere, the report said.... http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/co2-levels-in-atmosphere-rising-at-dramatically-faster-rate-un-report-warns/2014/09/08/3e2277d2-378d-11e4-bdfb-de4104544a37_story.html. By Joby Warrick, Washington Post.
2013-05-09. Carbon dioxide passes symbolic mark BBC News. Excerpt: ...Carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere have broken through a symbolic mark. Daily measurements of CO2 at a US government agency lab on Hawaii have topped 400 parts per million for the first time. The station, which sits on the Mauna Loa volcano, feeds its numbers into a continuous record of the concentration of the gas stretching back to 1958. The last time CO2 was regularly above 400ppm was three to five million years ago - before modern humans existed. Scientists say the climate back then was also considerably warmer than it is today. ...The usual trend seen at the volcano is for the CO2 concentration to rise in winter months and then to fall back as the northern hemisphere growing season kicks in. Forests and other vegetation pull some of the gas out of the atmosphere. This means the number can be expected to decline by a few ppm below 400 in the coming weeks. But the long-term trend is upwards.... http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-22486153. See also New York Times article.
2011 November 3. Greenhouse gases rise by record amount. Associated Press via The Guardian. Excerpt: The global output of heat-trapping carbon dioxide has jumped by a record amount, according to the US department of energy, a sign of how feeble the world's efforts are at slowing man-made global warming.
The figures for 2010 mean that levels of greenhouse gases are higher than the worst case scenario outlined by climate experts just four years ago….
…The world pumped about 564m more tons (512m metric tons) of carbon into the air in 2010 than it did in 2009, an increase of 6%. That amount of extra pollution eclipses the individual emissions of all but three countries, China, the US and India, the world's top producers of greenhouse gases….
2011 October. IEA releases latest statistics on global CO2 emissions. International Energy Agency. Report Description: How much CO2 are countries emitting? Where is it coming from?
In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Durban, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process the IEA is making available for free download the "Highlights" version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion….
This annual publication contains:
2010 December 21. A Scientist, His Work, and a Climate Reckoning. By Justin Gillis, NYTimes. Excerpt:
MAUNA LOA OBSERVATORY, Hawaii — Two gray machines sit inside a pair of
utilitarian buildings here, sniffing the fresh breezes that blow across
thousands of miles of ocean....
- estimates of CO2 emissions by country from 1971 to 2009
- selected indicators such as CO2/ GDP, CO2/ capita, CO2/ TPES and CO2/ kWh
- CO2 emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, and other relevant information
...The first machine of this type was installed on Mauna Loa in the
1950s at the behest of Charles David Keeling, a scientist from San
Diego. His resulting discovery, of the increasing level of carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere, transformed the scientific understanding of
humanity’s relationship with the earth. A graph of his findings is
inscribed on a wall in Washington as one of the great achievements of
Yet, five years after Dr. Keeling’s death, his discovery is a focus not
of celebration but of conflict. It has become the touchstone of a
worldwide political debate over global warming...
2009 September 11. At AAAS Pacific Division Meeting, Researchers Detail Mounting Perils for San Francisco Bay. By Edward W. Lempinen, AAAS News. Excerpt:
...during a day-long symposium at the AAAS Pacific Division annual
meeting, ...researchers described a new generation of challenges that
imperil the Bay—the continuing loss of native species, incursions by
non-native species, and rising concentrations of fire retardants and
The overarching challenge, some said, may be Earth's changing climate,
which could raise Bay water levels by four feet or more by the end of
the century. Even a smaller rise in the water level could inundate
thousands of acres of low-lying developed areas on shore, damage or
submerge sensitive tidal marshes that harbor endangered wildlife, and
force the expenditure of billions of dollars for protective levees.
...Decreased sediment, increased phytoplankton, reduced carbon
dioxide—researchers see these trends as evidence that the fundamental
chemistry of the San Francisco Bay is turning less hospitable to its
historic diversity of plant and animal life....
But an array of trends make understanding elusive and Bay protection exceedingly difficult.
Where great progress has been made in reducing sewage discharges and
the concentration of many heavy metals, researchers have come to
understand the risk posed by other contaminants.
Toxic mercury, dioxin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among
the Bay's most serious contaminants now, said Davis, the environmental
scientist at the San Francisco Estuary Institute. Mercury has entered
the food chain, leading to a consumption advisory for Bay fish, and it
could have an impact on reproduction for some creatures. Further, Davis
said, those compounds have been trapped in the sediment over the last
several decades—and can be released by storms and shifting currents....
2009 July 16. Mysterious, Glowing Clouds Appear Across America's Night Skies. Wired Science. Excerpt:
Mysterious, glowing clouds previously seen almost exclusively in
Earth's polar regions have appeared in the skies over the United States
and Europe over the past several days. Photographers and other sky
watchers in Omaha, Paris, Seattle, and other locations have run outside
to capture images of what scientists call noctilucent ("night shining")
clouds. Formed by ice literally at the boundary where the earth's
atmosphere meets space 50 miles up, they shine because they are so high
that they remain lit by the sun even after our star is below the
The clouds might be beautiful, but they could portend global changes
caused by global warming. Noctilucent clouds are ... "... a real
concern and question," said James Russell, an atmospheric scientist at
Hampton University and the principal investigator of an ongoing NASA
satellite mission to study the clouds. "Why are they getting more
numerous? Why are they getting brighter? Why are they appearing at
lower latitudes?" ....
2008 March 31. US West Warming Faster Than Rest Of World - Study. Planet Ark; Reuters. Excerpt:
LOS ANGELES - The US West is heating up at nearly twice the rate of the
rest of the world and is likely to face more drought conditions in many
of its fast-growing cities.... By analysing federal government
temperature data, the Natural Resources Defence Council concluded
that the average temperature in the 11-state Western region from
2003-07 was 1.7 degrees Fahrenheit (0.94 degrees Celsius) higher than
the historical average of the 20th century. The global average increase
for the same period was 1.0 degrees Fahrenheit (0.55 degrees Celsius).
In the Colorado River Basin, which supplies water to big and
fast-growing cities like Los Angeles, San Diego, Las Vegas and Denver,
the average temperature rose 2.2 degrees Fahrenheit (1.21 degrees
Celsius), the US group said.
Most of the river's water comes from melting snow in the mountains, and
climate scientists predict hotter temperatures will reduce the snowpack
and increase evaporation, the NRDC said in a statement. "Global warming
is hitting the West hard," said Theo Spencer of the NRDC. "It is
already taking an economic toll on the region's tourism, recreation,
skiing, hunting and fishing activities."....
June 2007. State of the Climate in 2006. The American Meteorological Society Journals Online (http://ams.allenpress.com/) just sent out a report on the 'State of the Climate in 2006'. There's the Executive Summary (pdf: 1MB) and the full report (pdf: 36 MB) . Fascinating scientific report on meteorological data. Lots of excellent graphics!
17 April 2007. FEWER AEROSOLS MAY STEP UP GLOBAL WARMING.
Program #5176 of the Earth & Sky Radio Series with hosts DEBORAH
BYRD and JOEL BLOCK interviewing Michael Mishchenko at the Goddard
Institute of Space Studies in New York. Excerpt:
Scientists believe they've seen a thinning of the aerosols found in
Earth's atmosphere. That's important because aerosols - which come from
industrial pollution as well as natural causes - help shield us from
the effects of global warming. Some refer to them as a global
"sunscreen." Aerosols cool Earth by reflecting sunlight. So, fewer
aerosols mean more warming. [listener] Gene Renkin: We know that
industrial pollution contributes to man-made global warming by
increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. Reducing pollution lowers carbon
dioxide production and slows down global warming. If at the same time,
reducing industrial pollution reduces atmospheric aerosols and
increases global warming, then what matters is the relative effect of
these opposite influences on global warming Nothing in this article
addresses that aspect of the situation. Please follow up on this. It is
important, because as reported, your article might be cited support the
ridiculous conclusion that increasing industrial atmospheric emissions
will lessen global warming. All direct evidence is to the contrary....
10 April 2007. There Is Climate Change Censorship - and It's the Deniers Who Dish It Out. By George Monbiot. The Guardian UK.Excerpt:
Global warming scientists are under intense pressure to water down
findings, and are then accused of silencing their critics. The drafting
of reports by the world's pre-eminent group of climate scientists is an
odd process. For months scientists contributing to the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change tussle over the evidence.
Nothing gets published unless it achieves consensus. This means that
the panel's reports are conservative - even timid. It also means that
they are as trustworthy as a scientific document can be. Then, when all
is settled among the scientists, the politicians sweep in and seek to
excise from the summaries anything that threatens their interests.
...The Union of Concerned Scientists found that 58% of the 279 climate
scientists working at federal agencies in the US who responded to its
survey reported that they had experienced one of the following
1. Pressure to eliminate the words "climate change", "global warming", or other similar terms from their communications;
2. Editing of scientific reports by their superiors that "changed the meaning of scientific findings";
3. Statements by officials at their agencies that misrepresented their findings;
4. The disappearance or unusual delay of websites, reports, or other science-based materials relating to climate;
5. New or unusual administrative requirements that impair climate-related work;
6. Situations in which scientists have actively objected to, resigned
from, or removed themselves from a project because of pressure to
change scientific findings. They reported 435 incidents of political
interference over the past five years. 2003, the White House gutted the
climate-change section of a report by the Environmental Protection
Agency. It deleted references to studies showing that global warming is
caused by manmade emissions. It added a reference to a study, partly
funded by the American Petroleum Institute, that suggested that
temperatures are not rising. Eventually the agency decided to drop the
October 2006. Climate Change in the U.S. Northeast. Excerpt:
Last week, a team of independent scientists and researchers, in
collaboration with the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), released a
new report detailing how global warming is poised to substantially
change the climate in the Northeast, including rising temperatures,
fewer snow covered days, increased sea level, and more extreme weather
events-the study. Dr. Cameron Wake,Research Associate Professor,
University of New Hampshire's Climate Change Research Center said "The
very notion of the Northeast as we know it is at stake. The near-term
emissions choices we make in the Northeast and throughout the world
will help determine the climate and quality of life our children and
grandchildren experience." The severity of climate change in the region
will be greatly affected by the choices that citizens, governments, and
businesses make today. Using new state-of-the-art research on recent
and projected changes in the Northeast's regional climate, the study
finds that without strong leadership and action, by late-century:
Northeast winters could warm by eight to 12 degrees Fahrenheit and
summers by six to nearly 14 degrees. The length of the region's winter
snow season could be cut in half. The frequency of short-term droughts
could increase significantly. Sea-level could rise from eight inches to
as much three feet. Many Northeast cities can expect about 25 days per
year over 100 degrees. (Currently, Northeast cities experience this
type of heat only once or twice a year.)....
14 September 2006. NASA Scientists See New Signs of Global Warming. By ANDREW C. REVKIN. Excerpt:
Scientists have long suspected that the recent melting of Arctic Ocean
ice in the summer might be a result of heat-trapping gases building up
in the atmosphere. But yesterday NASA scientists reported that higher
temperatures and a retreat of the sea ice over the last two winters
offered new evidence that the gases were influencing the region's
climate. While the summer melting could be a result of a number of
phenomena like the flow of warm water, the scientists said, the
reduction of winter ice two seasons in a row is harder to explain
without invoking the heat-trapping effects of gases like carbon
dioxide. ...In the past two winters, the peak of sea ice growth in the
Arctic has been 6 percent below the average peak since the satellite
observations began, Dr. [Josefino] Comiso said. His findings are to be
published this month in the journal Geophysical Research Letters....
8 March 2006. NASA RELEASE: 06-089. NASA Survey Confirms Climate Warming Impact on Polar Ice Sheets. In
the most comprehensive survey ever undertaken of the massive ice sheets
covering both Greenland and Antarctica, NASA scientists confirm climate
warming is changing how much water remains locked in Earth's largest
storehouses of ice and snow. "If the trends we're seeing continue and
climate warming continues as predicted, the polar ice sheets could
change dramatically," said survey lead author Jay Zwally of NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. "The Greenland ice sheet
could be facing an irreversible decline by the end of the century."
2 March 2006. NASA RELEASE: 06-085. NASA Mission Detects Significant Antarctic Ice Mass Loss. Scientists
were able to conduct the first-ever gravity survey of the entire
Antarctic ice sheet using data from the joint NASA/German Aerospace
Center Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). This
comprehensive study found the ice sheet's mass has decreased
significantly from 2002 to 2005. ...The estimated mass loss was enough
to raise global sea level about 1.2 millimeters (0.05 inches) during
the survey period; about 13 percent of the overall observed sea level
rise for the same period. The researchers found Antarctica's ice sheet
decreased by 152 (plus or minus 80) cubic kilometers of ice annually
between April 2002 and August 2005.
17 October 2005. A
Warmer World Might Not Be a Wetter One. NASA
Earth Observatory. A NASA study is offering
new insight into how the Earth's water cycle
might be influenced by global change. Scientists
have warned that the water cycle may be
affected by temperature changes, as warmer
temperatures can increase the moisture-holding
capacity of air.
29 April 2005. NASA
RELEASE: 05-111. Scientists Confirm Earth's
Energy is Out of Balance. Scientists
have concluded more energy is being absorbed
from the sun than is emitted back to space,
throwing the Earth's energy
"out of balance" and warming the
globe.Scientists from NASA, Columbia University,
New York, and Lawrence Berkeley National
Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif. used satellites,
data from buoys and computer models to study
the Earth's oceans. They confirmed the energy
imbalance by using precise measurements
of increasing ocean heat content over the
past 10 years. The study reveals Earth's
energy imbalance is large by standards of
the planet's history. The imbalance is 0.85
watts per meter squared. That will cause
an additional warming of 0.6 degrees Celsius
(1 degree Fahrenheit) by the end of this
century. To understand the difference, think
of a one-watt light bulb shining over an
area of one square meter (10.76 square feet).
Although it doesn't seem like much, adding
up the number of feet around the world creates
a big effect. To put this number into perspective,
an imbalance of one-watt per square meter,
maintained for the past 10,000 years is
enough to melt ice equivalent to one kilometer
(.6 mile) of sea level, if there were that
much ice. ... "Warmer waters increase
the likelihood of accelerated ice sheet
disintegration and sea level rise during
Hansen said. .... Data has shown they have
risen by approximately 3.1 centimeters or
1.26 inches per decade. Although 3.1 centimeters
is a small change, the rate of increase
is twice as large as in the preceding century.
There are positive feedbacks that come into
play, as the area of ice melt increases.
23 December 2004. Climate
Change Denial: A Note to Journalists. Earth
Justice Website. The debate about the anthropogenic
(human-caused) climate change is largely over.
A recent survey of peer-reviewed studies published
in Science magazine found no respected research
debunking human-related activities as a major
cause of climate change.
6 October 2004. NASA RELEASE: 04-337. STUDY
SHOWS POTENTIAL FOR ANTARCTIC CLIMATE CHANGE. While
Antarctica has mostly cooled over the last
30 years, the trend is likely to rapidly reverse,
according to a computer model study by NASA
researchers. The study indicates the South
Polar Region is expected to warm during the
next 50 years.
23 September 2004. NASA RELEASE: 04-312: Scientists
Report Increased Thinning of West Antarctic
in West Antarctica are shrinking at a rate
substantially higher than observed in the
1990s. They are losing 60 percent more ice
into the Amundsen Sea than they accumulate
from inland snowfall....The ice loss from
the measured glaciers corresponds to an annual
sea-level rise of .008 inches (.2 millimeters)
or more than 10 percent of the total global
increase of about .07 inches (1.8 millimeters)
4 September 2004. NASA RELEASE : 04-286
NASA's GRACE Gravity Mission Weighs in on
Earth's Changing Climate. For
the first time, scientists have demonstrated
precise measurements of Earth's changing gravity
field can effectively monitor changes in the
planet's climate and weather. This finding
comes from more than a year's worth of data
from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment
(GRACE).... Results published in the journal
Science show monthly changes in the distribution
of water and ice masses could be estimated
by measuring changes in Earth's gravity field.
.... Launched in March 2002, GRACE tracks
changes in Earth's gravity field. GRACE senses
minute variations in gravitational pull from
local changes in Earth's mass. To do this,
GRACE measures, to one-hundredth the width
of a human hair, changes in the separation
of two identical spacecraft in the same orbit
approximately 220 kilometers (137 miles) apart.
GRACE maps these variations from month to
month, following changes imposed by the seasons,
weather patterns and short-term climate change.
Understanding how Earth's mass varies over
time is an important component necessary to
study changes in global sea level, polar ice
mass, deep ocean currents, depletion and recharge
of continental aquifers. GRACE monthly maps
are up to 100 times more accurate than existing
ones, substantially improving the accuracy
of many techniques used by oceanographers,
hydrologists, glaciologists, geologists and
other scientists to study phenomena that influence
9 June 2004. NY Times: An
Icy Riddle as Big as Greenland. By ANDREW
C. REVKIN, New York Times. The
Greenland Ice Cap and the swirling seas nearby
have emerged as vital pieces of an urgent
puzzle posed by global warming.
10 February 2004. NASA
PREDICTS MORE TROPICAL RAIN IN A WARMER WORLD (RELEASE:
04-058) As the tropical
oceans continue to heat up, following a 20-year
trend, warm rains in the tropics are likely
to become more frequent, according to NASA
scientists. ... patterns of evaporation and
precipitation, known as the water cycle, may
accelerate in some areas due to warming temperatures.
20 January 2004. Breakup
of the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf. In
the summer of 2002, graduate student Derek
Mueller made an unwelcome discovery: the biggest
ice shelf in the Arctic was breaking apart.
The bad news didn't stop there. Lying along
the northern coast of Ellesmere Island in
northern Canada, the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf had
dammed an epishelf lake, a body of freshwater
that floats on denser ocean water. When the
Ward Hunt Ice Shelf fractured, the epishelf
lake suddenly drained out of Disraeli Fiord,
spilling more than 3 billion cubic meters
of fresh water into the Arctic Ocean
December 2003. NASA Release: 03-404 NASA
SCIENTISTS DISCOVER SPRING THAW MAKES A DIFFERENCE. Using
a suite of microwave remote sensing instruments
aboard satellites, scientists at NASA's Jet
Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, Calif.,
and the University of Montana, Missoula, have
observed a recent trend of earlier thawing
across the northern high latitudes. ..."Frozen
soil can store carbon for hundreds to thousands
of years," said lead author Dr. Kyle
McDonald of JPL, "but when the permafrost
thaws and begins to dry out, it releases the
carbon back into the atmosphere." The
concern is that eventually carbon released
from the soil will prevail over the amount
being taken in by growing plants. Carbon dioxide
levels in the atmosphere would increase at
an accelerated rate, fostering even greater
warming of the region and affecting global
climate. For more information about climate
on the Internet, click here.
December 2003. Climate
Scientists Zoom In on Changes, by Kirk
Johnson. The New
York City region has been likened to a quilt
- a stitched-together patchwork of neighborhoods
and communities so different in their economic
and ethnic profiles that location can sometimes
seem like the only thing they have in common.
Now, for the first time, scientists are beginning
to look at the future climate in the same
way. Their key insight is that just like everything
else in and around New York - from the quality
of the schools to crime rates and taxes -
global warming and climate change over the
coming century will affect people and their
health differently depending on where they
live. To test this theory, the New York Climate
and Health Project, which scientists say is
distinctive in its attention to the smaller-scale
impact of global warming, has divided the
31-county region, which includes much of Connecticut,
New Jersey and the nearby New York suburbs
as well as the city itself, into hundreds
of grid boxes, each four kilometers square.
Vast number-crunching climate models, fed
with everything now known about those communities
and what might be projected in the future,
are being asked to speculate what a warming
planet might mean, on the ground in each square,
to a person on a hot summer's day in the mid-2050's.
It is climate science with a zoom lens. Members
of the team are presenting their case this
week to fellow scientists at a meeting of
the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco.
October 2003. NASA RELEASE : 03-309 -- Huge
Antarctic Iceberg Makes A Big Splash On Sea
Life -- NASA
satellites observed the calving, or breaking
off, of one of the largest icebergs ever recorded,
named "C-19." C-19 separated from
the western face of the Ross Ice Shelf in
Antarctica in May 2002, splashed into the
Ross Sea, and virtually eliminated a valuable
food source for marine life. The event was
unusual, because it was the second-largest
iceberg to calve in the region in 26 months.
Over the last year, the path of C-19 inhibited
the growth of minute, free-floating aquatic
plants called phytoplankton during the iceberg's
temporary stopover near Pennell Bank, Antarctica.
C-19 is located along the Antarctic coast
and has diminished little in size. Since phytoplankton
is at the base of the food chain, C-19 affects
the food source of higher-level marine plants
and animals. Kevin R. Arrigo and Gert L. van
Dijken of Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.,
used chlorophyll data from NASA's Sea-viewing
Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). C-19
is about twice the size of Rhode Island.
September 2003. Largest
Arctic Ice Shelf Breaks Up, Draining Freshwater
Earth Observatory. The largest ice shelf in
the Arctic has broken, and scientists who
have studied it closely say it is evidence
of ongoing and accelerated climate change
in the north polar region. Full
September 2003. Ocean
Plant Life Slows Down and Absorbs Less Carbon. NASA's
Earth Observatory. Plant life in the world's
oceans has become less productive since the
early 1980s, absorbing less carbon, which
may in turn impact the Earth's carbon cycle,
according to a study that combines NASA satellite
data with NOAA surface observations of marine
September 2003. Role
of Tropics in Global Climate Change Gains
Earth Observatory. The tropics are being recognized
as an important element in the dynamic process
of global climate change.
August 2003. Arctic
ice cap will melt completely in 100 years OSLO
(AFP) - The Arctic
ice cap will melt completely within the next
century if carbon dioxide emissions continue
to heat the Earth's atmosphere at current
rates, according to an international study.
July 2003. . Northern N.E. winter shrinking,
study says. by Stephanie Ebbert, Globe
Staff Boston Daily Globe.-- New
England winters - those storied, interminable
seasons of yesteryear -- just aren't what
they used to be. In fact, in northern New
England, their duration may now be a week
or two shorter than in the 1960s, according
to the US Geological Survey. In a study to
be published Friday in the Journal of Hydrology,
scientists who examined historic river flow
data report that spring has accelerated by
one to two weeks in northern New England,
though the trend is inconsistent in the southern
part of the region.
January 2003, NASA
Instrument Captures Early Antarctic Ice Shelf
Melting [JPL News Release: 2003-004 --
] An international
research team using data from NASA's SeaWinds
instrument aboard the Quick Scatterometer
spacecraft has detected the earliest yet recorded
pre-summer melting event in a section of Antarctica's
Larsen Ice Shelf. This huge, nearly 200 meter
(656 foot) thick plate of glacier-fed floating
ice, which in the late 1980s was about as
large as Indiana, experienced dramatic disintegration
events beginning in 1995 that have reduced
its area by nearly 10 percent, or more than
two trillion tons of ice.
13 September 2002. FROM
SATELLITES TO SEA: JPL SCIENTISTS MAP OCEAN
Researchers from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory
have shown that although radio signals from
the constellation of global positioning system
(GPS) navigation satellites orbiting Earth
are very weak, they can be detected by airborne
instruments and used to map ocean eddies...
12 September 2002. NEW GRAVITY MISSION ON TRACK
TO MAP EARTH'S SHIFTY MASS. Excerpt: Six
months into its mission to precisely measure
Earth's shifting water masses and map their
effects on Earth's gravity field, the joint
NASA-German Aerospace Center Gravity Recovery
and Climate Experiment, or Grace, is already
producing results of considerable interest.
2002. OnEarth, Fall 2002, OnEarth, p.9. Himalayan
Liquidation, by Eric Hansen Excerpt:
En route to Mount Everest's base camp, in
the Khumbu region of Nepal, some climbers
opt for a side trip to a glacial lake called
Imja. Standing on its rocky banks on cloudless
days, a person can take in an awesome vista
of Himalayan peaks, making the 1.4-mile-long,
300-foot-deep lake a good place to pause awhile
and contemplate nature's splendor. It is also
a good place to ponder the problem of global
warming. Thirty-five years ago, the lake was
a rubble-strewn depression spotted by a few
unconnected ponds. But Himalayan glaciers
have been melting so fast in recent years
that this site and others around the country
have become catch basins for millions of gallons
of water. Jeffrey Kargel, international coordinator
for the Global Land Ice Measurements from
Space project, says that lake formation in
Nepal seems to have accelerated in the last
fifty years, and especially in the last decade. "The
overwhelming majority of glaciologists' says
Kargel, who also is a geologist with the United
States Geological Survey, "are of a mind
that the vast majority of glaciers are retreating
or downwasting largely due to human influences."
July 2002. The
prehistory of neotropical lowland forests. Panama
City, Panama - Although
they have persisted for tens of millions of
years, neotropical lowland forests have changed
greatly in extent and composition due to climatic
variation and to human impacts. In a symposium
at the 2002 meetings of the Association for
Tropical Biology, hosted by the Smithsonian
Tropical Research Institute (STRI), Panama,
scientists presented the latest results of
research on neotropical forests and their
transformations up to the time of Columbus.
June 2002. NASA
Earth Science Enterprise Series, Fact Sheet:
NF-222, about Global Warming [143KB PDF] Twenty-five
years ago if you made a trip to the local
perused the periodical section for articles
on global warming, you'd probably have come
up with only a few abstracts from hard core
science journals or maybe a blurb in some
esoteric geopolitical magazine. As an Internet
search on global warming now attests, the
subject has become as rooted in our public
consciousness as Madonna or microwave cooking.
June 2002. Alaska,
No Longer So Frigid, Starts to Crack, Burn
and Sag, By TIMOTHY EGAN (NYT) With
the average temperature rising seven degrees
over the past 30 years, Alaskans are facing
sagging roads, shoreline erosion and dying
forests. ... 13 June 2002 -- Revealed:
how the smoke stacks of America have brought
the world's worst drought to Africa --
By Charles Arthur Technology Editor -- Full
May 2002. DECLINE
OF WORLD'S GLACIERS EXPECTED TO HAVE GLOBAL
IMPACTS OVER THIS CENTURY.
The great majority of the world's glaciers
appear to be declining at rates equal to or
greater than long-established trends, according
to early results from a joint NASA and United
States Geological Survey (USGS) project designed
to provide a global assessment of glaciers.
At the same time, a small minority of glaciers
June 2002. IQALUIT, Nunavut. Under
their feet, the world changes. Inuit elders
of Canada watch their habitat melt as global
warming alters their Arctic culture.
April 2002. MASSIVE
ICEBERGS MAY AFFECT ANTARCTIC SEA LIFE AND
FOOD CHAIN --
NASA-funded research using satellite data
has shown large icebergs that have broken
off from Antarctica's Ross Ice Shelf are dramatically
affecting the growth of minute plant life
in the ocean around the region -- plant life
vital to the local food chain. Scientists
say the icebergs appear to have caused a 40
percent reduction in the size of the 2000-2001
plankton bloom in one of Antarctica's most
biologically productive areas. The icebergs
decrease the amount of open water that the
plants need for reproduction.
November 2001. Rising
Sea Level Forcing Evacuation of Island Country.
Lester R. Brown. Excerpt:
The leaders of Tuvalu--a tiny island country
in the Pacific Ocean midway between Hawaii
and Australia--have conceded defeat in their
battle with the rising sea, announcing that
they will abandon their homeland. After being
rebuffed by Australia, the Tuvaluans asked
New Zealand to accept its 11,000 citizens,
but it has not agreed to do so.
March 2001. NASA
IMAGE REVEALS GIANT CHIP OFF THE ANTARCTIC
ICE BLOCK. NASA
RELEASE: 01-50 -- There appears to be a new
crack in the Antarctic's icy armor. The massive
iceberg-to-be was captured by a NASA satellite
that's also tracing hidden continental features
that shape the future of the world's largest
February 2001. SPACE
MAPPING MISSION CATCHES ANTARCTICA IN MOTION (RELEASE:
ice sheet --is it advancing or retreating?
-- RADARSAT -- comprehensive view of how the
Antarctic ice sheet moves and changes and
may help answer some fundamental questions
about this mysterious place at the end of
the world, including whether the ice sheet
is advancing or retreating.
Articles from 2004–present
- 19 multimedia resources from Teachers' Domain Earth
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