1. Global Systems

What is Global Systems Science?

2015-10-19. Daily Views of Earth Available on New NASA Website. NASA Release 15-199.

2013 January 23.  Is cold wave beetle’s death knell?. By Dale Rodebaugh, The Durango Herald. Excerpt:  The widespread cold in Southwest Colorado in recent weeks has been penetrating enough to shrivel people, but probably hasn’t fazed the spruce bark beetle, foresters say. It requires days, maybe weeks, of minus 20, minus 30 or minus 40 degrees to affect the bark beetle, which has ravaged broad stands of Engelmann spruce in many areas, including the Weminuche Wilderness north of Durango and Wolf Creek Pass to the east. “The colder it is and the longer it’s cold will bring more beetle mortality,” said Kent Grant, the district forester in Durango for the Colorado State Forest Service. “It would be nice to think it could happen, but don’t bank on it.” ... The eastern San Juan Mountains may have lost 90 percent of some spruce stands to the bark beetle, he said. In its 2012 report (the 2013 report isn’t out yet), the Colorado State Forest Service said the mountain pine beetle continued to be the most damaging forest pest in 2011.….

2012 November 27. Beetles Warm BC Forests. By Sabrina Richards, TheScientist. Excerpt:  Pine beetle infestation increases the summertime temperatures of some Canadian forests by 1 degree Celsius—about the same impact as a forest fire—according to new findings published Sunday (November 25) in Nature Geoscience. The beetle populations, spurred into profusion by global warming, appear to be contributing to a temperature feedback loop, …. The results reinforce the conclusion that ecological disturbances like beetle infestations can have significant ecological impacts, said Allan Carroll, an insect ecologist at the University of British Columbia…. ”We have until very recently considered biotic disturbances a bit player [in climate change],” …. The current study confirms that pine beetles can have massive effects that set up “an uncomfortable feedback” wherein warming temperatures encourage more beetle damage, which in turn influences warming… Pine beetles lay their eggs under pine tree bark, introducing a fungus that inhibits nutrient flow in the trees. Usually pine beetles are killed off by freezing winter temperatures, limiting their spread. But a recent spate of warm winters, combined with forests dominated by mature pine trees, enabled a beetle population boom in North America, including parts of Alberta, Wyoming, and Colorado.  About 170,000 square kilometers of British Columbia’s forest—almost 20 percent of the province’s area—have been affected by pine beetle infestations, costing thousands of timber industry jobs. Many studies have focused on the role of global warming on pine beetle outbreaks, but fewer have looked at how the beetles themselves may be contributing to climate change….

2011 August 8. An Economist for Nature Calculates the Need for More Protection. By John Moir, The New York Times. Excerpt: Dawn is breaking over this remote upland region, where neat rows of coffee plants cover many of the hillsides. The rising tropical sun saturates the landscape with color, revealing islandlike remnants of native forest scattered among the coffee plantations. But across this bucolic countryside, trouble is brewing. An invasive African insect known as the coffee berry borer is threatening the area’s crops. Local farmers call the pest “la broca”: the borer.
…Since 1991, Dr. Daily, 46, has made frequent trips to this Costa Rican site to conduct one of the tropics’ most comprehensive population-level studies to monitor long-term ecological change.
“We are working to very specifically quantify in biophysical and dollar terms the value of conserving the forest and its wildlife,” she said.
In recent years, Dr. Daily has expanded her research to include a global focus. She is one of the pioneers in the growing worldwide effort to protect the environment by quantifying the value of “natural capital” — nature’s goods and services that are fundamental for human life — and factoring these benefits into the calculations of businesses and governments. Dr. Daily’s work has attracted international attention and has earned her some of the world’s most coveted environmental awards….

2009 May 20. NASA GIVES SPACE STATION CREW 'GO' TO DRINK RECYCLED WATER - NASA RELEASE: 09-096. Excerpt: HOUSTON -- NASA's Mission Control gave the Expedition 19 astronaut crew aboard the International Space Station a "go" to drink water that the station's new recycling system has purified. ..."This has been the stuff of science fiction.
Everybody's talked about recycling water in a closed loop system, but nobody's ever done it before. Here we are today with the first round of recycled water, ...This system will reduce the amount of water we must launch to the station once the shuttle retires and also test out a key technology required for sending humans on long duration missions to the moon and Mars." ...The system has been processing urine into purified water since shuttle Discovery's STS-119 crew delivered and installed a replacement Urine Processing Assembly in March. The system is tied into the station's Waste and Hygiene Compartment toilet and recovers and recycles moisture from the station's atmosphere....

2009 May 11. Humboldt's gift. The Economist. Excerpt: AMID this year’s flurry of scientific jubilees, one seems to have passed largely unnoticed. On May 6th admirers celebrated the 150th anniversary of the death of Alexander von Humboldt, a Prussian naturalist and geographer. He may no longer be as famous as some of his contemporaries, yet Humboldt’s work sheds a clear light on the great challenges the world faces today from climate change. Humboldt noticed, for example, that volcanoes form in chains and speculated that these might coincide with subterranean fissures, more than a century before plate tectonics became widely accepted. ...he championed the study of how living things were related to their physical surroundings....
Humboldt cut a remarkable figure. He travelled widely, making scientific notes of his many geographical, zoological and botanical discoveries, and formulating theories to explain the relationships he observed....
...Humboldt was a polymath. Versed in most scientific fields of the time...he later contributed to many disciplines by picking up myriad botanical, zoological and geological samples on his voyages....He was permanently on the lookout for possible interdependencies. The search for underlying relationships between different sets of geophysical and meteorological measurements, which he made by the thousand, led him to invent isotherms, the lines on maps that link points of equal temperature. This vast quantitative endeavour laid the groundwork for “the general physics of the Earth” that is now known as the Earth sciences...

2008 July 22. NEW NASA 'FIRE & SMOKE' WEB PAGE SHOWS LATEST FIRE VIEWS, RESEARCH. Excerpt: WASHINGTON -- NASA satellites, aircraft, and research know-how have created a wealth of cutting-edge tools to help firefighters battle wildfires. These tools also have helped scientists understand the impact of fires and smoke on Earth's climate and ecosystems. Now, a new NASA Web site brings to the public and journalists the latest information about this ongoing effort.
The NASA "Fire and Smoke" Web site debuting Tuesday includes regular updates of NASA images of fires and their associated smoke plumes in the United States and around the world. The site also features articles on the latest research results and multimedia resources from across NASA. The site is updated regularly with new images from NASA's suite of Earth observing satellites and airborne observatories, including the unmanned Ikhana aircraft that recently pinpointed wildfire hotspots across California....

2007 July-August. EXPEDITION TO SIBERIA. NASA Earth Observatory. Blog entries from NASA scientists and Russia's Academy of Science on an expedition down the Kochechum River in north-central Siberia as they go in search of answers to the question "As Earth's temperature rises, what is happening to the great northern forests of Siberia?"

2006 November 6 NASA SUPPORTS UAS FIRE MAPPING EFFORTS ON CALIFORNIA FIRE From NASA Earth Observatory. A team led by NASA and U.S. Forest Service scientists recently collected real-time, visible and infrared data from sensors onboard a remotely piloted aircraft over the Esperanza Fire in Southern California.

2 October 2005. A Quest for Oil Collides With Nature in Alaska. By FELICITY BARRINGER. NT Times. IKPIKPUK RIVER DELTA, Alaska - The 217,000 acres of windblown water and mottled tundra here on the North Slope of Alaska ...are home in summer to 50,000 to 90,000 migratory birds. This corner of Alaska's National Petroleum Reserve is also thought to be brimming with oil. From the presidencies of Ronald Reagan through Bill Clinton, federal officials put the bird habitat off limits to oil development. But after federal geologists in 2002 quadrupled their estimate of the oil available here in the northeast quadrant of the reserve, the Bush administration proposed putting the whole area up for lease to oil and gas companies. The move has touched off a fierce debate over whether new technologies can allow wildlife to coexist easily with oil exploration. Here, among the crazy-quilt pattern of land and water, the question is particularly keen, because this is where Pacific black brant, snow geese and other migratory birds annually shed their feathers, and for six flightless weeks have minimal disturbance and a clear line of sight against predators.

March 2005. Field Ecology in a Cultural Context. By Kerri T. Vierling, Jacqueline Bolman, and Kelly Lane. Science Teacher, p. 26-31. Ecological studies that examine how organisms interact with their environment provide a particularly useful backdrop for high school students to both quantitatively and qualitatively explore the natural world. In Hot Springs, South Dakota, we developed a module that integrated modern ecological theory within an American Indian cultural framework. In this weeklong field ecology course, Lakota Sioux high school students explored woodpecker habitat selection and fire ecology.


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