2015-12-07. Model of Solar Cycle's Impact on Climate Gets Upgrade.

posted Dec 13, 2015, 5:15 PM by Alan Gould
By Mark Zastrow, EoS Earth & Space Science News. For GSS Climate Change chapter 7, Energy Flow chapter 4, Ozone chapter 2. Excerpt: ...Over the course of the 11-year cycle, the rotation of the Sun slowly twists its magnetic field into knots, creating dark sunspots. Although the overall brightness of the Sun varies by only 0.1%, the twisted bundles of magnetic energy can boost its ultraviolet (UV) radiation by 4%–8% at the solar cycle’s peak. These powerful UV rays trigger chemical reactions in the stratosphere that bind oxygen atoms and molecules to form ozone. Since ozone itself is a good absorber of UV radiation, it can heat the stratosphere near the equator, which affects the winds that circle the globe. Increased solar activity also excites Earth’s magnetic field, sending high-energy particles hurtling into the upper atmosphere. During the long polar night, this can generate large amounts of the nitrogen compounds nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which eventually descend into the stratosphere and destroy ozone. To study the effects of these often-competing processes, scientists construct simulations using models such as the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) produced by the National Center for Atmospheric Research....  https://eos.org/research-spotlights/model-of-solar-cycles-impact-on-climate-gets-upgrade