Sources


Websites on Climate Change

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) - http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov

NOAA Education Page - http://www.oar.noaa.gov/education/

North American Drought: A Paleo Perspective - http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov:80/paleo/drought

A Paleo Perspective on Global Warming - http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov:80/paleo/globalwarming

U.S. Global Climate Change Research Program - http://www.usgcrp.gov/

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - http://www.ipcc.ch/

NASA Science Earth - http://nasascience.nasa.gov/earth-science

PAGES: International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Core Project - http://www.pages.unibe.ch/

National Ice Core Laboratory Science Management Office, UNH - http://www.nicl-smo.sr.unh.edu/

Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2, UNH - http://www.gisp2.sr.unh.edu/GISP2/

University of California Museum of Paleontology Exhibits - http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/exhibit/exhibits.html

University of California Museum of Paleontology Continental Drift - http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/geology/anim1.html

 


Bibliography By Chapter

Chapter 1.  Discovering the Atmosphere

Allaby, Michael.  Air: The Nature of Atmosphere and the Climate.  New York:  Facts on File, 1992.

Bruno, Leonard C.  Landmarks of Science from the Collections of the Library of Congress.  New York:  Facts on File, 1989.

Taylor, F. Sherwood.  A Short History of Science and Scientific Thought.  New York:  W. W. Norton & Co., 1949.


Chapter 2.  Where Did Earth’s Atmosphere Come From?

Allégre, Claude J., and Stephen H. Schneider, “The Evolution of the Earth,” Scientific American: Revolutions in Science.  New York: 1999.

Cloud, Preston. Oasis in Space: Earth History from the Beginning.  New York:  W. W. Norton & Co., 1988.

Hunten, Donald M., “Atmospheric Evolution of the Terrestrial Planets,” Science. Vol. 259, February 12, 1993.

Kant, Immanuel.  Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens.  Ann Arbor, MI:  University of Michigan Press, 1969.

Kasting, James F. “Earth’s Early Atmosphere,” Science.  Vol. 259, February 12, 1993.

Kasting, James F., Owen B. Toon, and James Pollack.  “How Climate Evolved on the Terrestrial Planets,” Scientific American.  Vol. 258, No. 2, February 1988, pp. 90-97.


Chapter 3.  How Do Scientists Play the Dating Game?

Cloud, Preston.  Oasis in Space (see Chapter 2).

Erickson, Jon.  Glacial Geology:  How Ice Shapes the Land.  New York:  Facts on File, 1996.

Hartman, Dennis L.  Global Physical Climatology.  New York:  Academic Press, 1994.

Lamb, Simon, and David Sington.  Earth Story:  The Shaping of Our World.  Princeton, NJ:  Princeton University Press, 1998.

Macdougall, J. D.  A Short History of Planet Earth.  New York:  John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996.

Pasechoff, Naomi.  Marie Curie and the Science of Radioactivity.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 1996.

Pflaum, Rosalynd.  Grand Obsession:  Madame Curie and Her World.  New York:  Doubleday, 1989.

Quinn, Susan.  Marie Curie.  New York:  Simon & Schuster, 1995.

Stevens, William.  The Change in the Weather:  People, Weather, and the Science of Climate.  New York:  Delacorte Press, Random House, 1999.

Strathern, Paul.  The Big Idea:  Curie and Radioactivity.  New York:  Doubleday, 1997.


Chapter 4.  The Beginning of Life on Earth

Erickson, Jon.  A History of Life on Earth:  Understanding Our Planet’s Past.  New York:  Facts on File, 1995.

Kutter, G. Siegfried, The Universe and Life: Origins and Evolution, Boston/Portola Valley: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc., 1987.

Lamb, Simon, and David Sington.  Earth Story  (see Ch. 3).

Macdougal, J. D.  A Short History of Planet Earth  (see Ch. 3).

McSween, Harry Y., Jr.  Fanfare for Earth:  The Origin of Our Planet and Life.  New York:  St. Martin’s Press, 1997.

Orgel, Leslie E., “The Origin of Life on the Earth,”  Scientific American: Revolutions in Science.  New York: 1999.

Tarling, D. H.  Plate Tectonics and Biological Evolution.  Burlington, NC: Carolina Biological Supply Co., 1992.

Van Andel, Tjeerd H.  New Views on an Old Planet: Continential Drift and the History of Earth.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

Wills, Christopher, and Jeffrey Bada.  The Spark of Life:  Darwin and the Primeval Soup.  Cambridge, MA:  Perseus Publishing, 2000.


Chapter 5.  The Origin of Our Oxygen-Rich Atmosphere

Cowan, Richard.  History of Life.  3rd Edition.  Davis, CA:  University of California Press, 2001.

Hartmann, William K., and Ron Miller.  The History of Earth:  An Illustrated Chronicle of an Evolving Planet.  New York:  Workman Publishing, 1991.

Lamb, Simon, and David Sington.  Earth Story  (see Chapter 3).

Lunine, Jonathan I.  Earth:  Evolution of a Habitable World.  New York:  Cambridge University Press, 1999.

McSween, Harry Y., Jr.  Fanfare for Earth  (see Ch. 4).

Rogers, John J. W.  A History of the Earth.  Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Schopf, J. William.  Cradle of Life:  The Discovery of Earth’s Earliest Fossils.  Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999.

Van Andel, Tjeerd H.  New Views on an Old Planet  (see Chapter 4).


Chapter 6.  How and When Did Complex Life Begin?

Barron, Eric J.  Climatic Variation in Earth History.  Boulder, CO:  University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, 1994.

Darwin, Charles.  The Origin of Species.  1st edition 1859.  Reprint, New York:  Viking Penguin, Inc., 1985.

Darwin, Charles.  The Voyage of the Beagle.  Revised edition 1860.  Reprint, New York:  Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1962.

Erickson, Jon.  A History of Life on Earth  (see Ch. 4).

Gould, Stephen Jay.  “The Evolution of Life on the Earth,” Scientific American.  October 1994, pp. 85-91.

Hartmann, William K., and Ron Miller.  The History of Earth  (see Chapter 5).

Lamb, Simon, and David Sington.  Earth Story  (see Chapter 3).

Schopf, J. William.  Cradle of Life  (see Chapter 5).

Shixing, Zhu, and Chen Huineng.  “Megascopic Multicellular Organisms from the 1700-Million-Year-Old Tuanshanzi Formation in the Jixian Area, North China,” Science.  Vol. 270, Oct 27, 1995, pp. 620-22.

Sullivan, Walter.  “Fossils Hint Land Life Began in Far Earlier Era,” New York Times.  February 22, 1994.

Wilford, John Noble.  “3 Finds Clarify Life’s Murky Origins,” New York Times. October 31, 1995, page C1.


Chapter 7.  The Earth’s Shifting Crust

Ball, Philip.  Life’s Matrix:  A Biography of Water.  New York:  Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1999.

Erickson, Jon.  Craters, Caverns and Canyons:  Delving Beneath the Earth’s Surface.  New York:  Facts on File, 1993.

Hartmann, William K., and Ron Miller.  The History of Earth  (see Chapter 5).

Kasting, James F., Owen B. Toon, and James Pollack.  “How Climate Evolved on the Terrestrial Planets,” Scientific American  (see Chapter 2).

Kidd, J. S., and Renee A. Kidd.  On Shifting Ground:  The Story of Continental Drift.  New York:  Facts on File, 1997.

Lamb, Simon, and David Sington.  Earth Story:  The Shaping of Our World  (see Chapter 3).

Lunine, Jonathan I.  Earth:  Evolution of a Habitable World  (see Chapter 5).

Macdougall, J. D.  A Short History of Planet Earth  (see Chapter 3).

Miller, Russell, and the Editors of Time-Life Books.  Planet Earth: Continents in Collision.  Alexandria,VA:  Time-Life Books, 1983.

Ruddiman, William F., and John E. Kutzbach.  “Plateau Uplift and Climate Change,” Scientific American.  March 1991, pp. 66-75.

Tarling, D. H.  Plate Tectonics and Biological Evolution  (see Chapter 4).

Taylor, S. Ross, and Scott M. McLennan, “The Evolution of the Continental Crust,” Scientific American: Revolutions in Science.  New York: 1999.

Van Andel, Tjeerd H.  New Views on an Old Planet  (see Chapter 4).

Wegener, Alfred.  The Origin of Continents and Oceans.  4th Revised German Edition, 1929.  Translated by John Biram.  Reprint, New York:  Dover Publications, 1966.


Chapter 8.  Highs and Lows over Past 750  Million Years

Appenzeller, Tim. “Searching for Clues to Ancient Carbon Dioxide,” Science.  Vol. 259, February 12, 1993.

Barron, Eric J. “Studies of Cretaceous Climate,” International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics and American Geophysical Union.  1989, pp. 149-57.

Berner, Robert A., and Antonio C. Lasaga.  “Modeling the Geochemical Carbon Cycle,” Scientific American.  March 1989, pp. 74-81.

Cloud, Preston.  Oasis in Space  (see Chapter 2).

Dobb, Edwin.  “Hot Times in the Cretaceous,” Discover.  February 1992, pp. 11-13.

Elsom, Derek.  Earth: The Making, Shaping and Workings of a Planet.  New York:  Macmillan Publishing Company, 1992.

Hamblin, W. Kenneth.  Earth’s Dynamic Systems.  6th Edition.  New York:  Macmillan Publishing Co. 1992.

Hartmann, William K., and Ron Miller.  The History of Earth (see Chapter 5).

Hoffman, Paul E., and Daniel P. Schrag.  “Snowball Earth,” Scientific American.  January 2000, pp. 68-75.

Lamb, Simon, and David Sington.  Earth Story (see Chapter 3).

Lunine, Jonathan I.  Earth:  Evoluton of a Habitable World  (see Chapter 5).

Macdougal, J. D.  A Short History of Planet Earth  (see Chapter 3).

McSween, Harry Y., Jr.  Fanfare for Earth (see Ch. 4).


Chapter 9.  What Happened to the Dinosaurs?

Alvarez, Walter.  T. rex and the Crater of Doom.  Princeton, NJ:  Princeton University Press, 1997.

Alvarez, Walter, and Frank Asaro.  “An Extraterrestrial Impact,” Scientific American.  October 1990, pp. 78-84.

Courtillot, Vincent E.  “A Volcanic Eruption,” Scientific American.  October 1990, pp. 85-92.

Cowan, Richard.  History of Life (see Chapter 5).

Frankel, Charles.  The End of the Dinosaurs:  Chicxulub Crater and Mass Extinctions.  Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Monastersky, Richard.  “Closing in on the Killer,” Science News. Vol. 141, No. 4, January 25, 1992, pages 56-58.

Norton, O. Richard.  Rocks from Space: Meteorites and Meteorite Hunters. 2nd Edition.  Missoula, MO:  Mountain Press Publishing Company, 1998.


Chapter 10.  The Ice Ages

Ackerman, Jennifer.  “New Eyes on the Oceans,” National Geographic.  Vol. 198, No. 4, October 2000, pp. 86-115.

Alley, Richard B. The Two-Mile Time Machine.  Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Ball, Philip.  Life’s Matrix:  A Biography of Water  (see Chapter 7).

Boden, T.A., R.J. Sepanski, and F.W. Stoss. Trends ‘91: A Compendium of Data on Global Change, ORNL/CDIAC-46.  Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 1991, p. 207.

Broecker, Wallace S., and George H. Denton.  “What Drives Glacial Cycles?” Scientific American.  January 1990, pp. 49-56.

Cowan, Richard.  History of Life  (see Chapter 5).

Erickson, Jon.  Glacial Geology:  How Ice Shapes the Land  (see Chapter 3).

Hartman, Dennis L.  Global Physical Climatology  (see Chapter 3).

Hays, J. D., John Imbrie, and N. J. Shackleton.  “Variations in the Earth’s Orbit:  Pacemaker of the Ice Ages,” Science.  Vol. 194, No. 4270, December 10, 1976, pp. 1121-32.

Hoffman, Paul E., and Daniel P. Schrag.  “Snowball Earth,” Scientific American (see Chapter 8).

Lunine, Jonathan I.  Earth:  Evoluton of a Habitable World  (see Chapter 5).

Macdougal, J. D.  A Short History of Planet Earth  (see Chapter 3).

Milne, David, David Raup, John Billingham, et al., Ed., The Evolution of Complex and Higher Organisms. NASA-SP478, Washington, DC:  U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985.

Petit, J.R. et al. “Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core,  Antarctica,” Nature, June 3, 1999, pp. 429-36.

Raynaud, D., et al.  “The Ice Record of Greenhouse Gases,” Science.  Vol. 259, February 12, 1993.

Ruddiman, William F., and John E. Kutzbach.  “Plateau Uplift and Climate Change,” Scientific American  (see Chapter 7).

Monastersky, R. “Ancient Ice Reveals Wild Climate Shifts,” Science News.  July 17, 1993, p. 36.

Stevens, William.  The Change in the Weather  (see Chapter 3).

Weiner, Jonathan.  “Glacier Bubbles Are Telling Us What Was in Ice Age Air,” Smithsonian.  May 1989, pp. 78-87.


Chapter 11.  Climate and Human Evolution

Allman, John Morgan.  Evolving Brains.  New York:  Scientific American Library, 1999.

Berger, Lee R.  In the Footsteps of Eve:  The Mystery of Human Origins.  Washington, DC:  Adventure Press, National Geographic, 2000.

Bower, B., “Earliest Ancestor Emerges in Africa,” Science News, vol. 16, p. 20, July 14, 2001.

Cowan, Richard.  History of Life  (see Chapter 5).

Erickson, Jon.  Glacial Geology (see Chapter 10).

Feder, Kenneth L.  The Past in Perspective:  An Introduction to Human Prehistory.  Mountain View, CA:  Mayfield Publishing Company, 1996.

Lewin, Roger.  The Origin of Modern Humans.  New York:  Scientific American Library, 1993.

Lunine, Jonathan I.  Earth:  Evoluton of a Habitable World  (see Chapter 5).

Reader, John.  Africa:  A Biography of the Continent.  New York:  Random House, Inc., 1997.

Smith, Anthony.  The Great Rift:  Africa’s Changing Valley.  New York:  Sterling Publishing Co., Inc., 1989.

Stevens, William K.  “Dust in Sea Mud May Link Human Evolution to Climate,” New York Times.  December 14, 1993, p. B5.  

Tattersall, Ian.  “We Were Not Alone,” Scientific American.  January 2000, pp. 56-62.

Tattersall, Ian, and Jeffrey H. Schwartz.  Extinct Humans.  New York:  Westview Press, 2000.

Wrangham, Richard W., James Holland Jones, Greg Laden et al. “The Raw and the Stolen: Cooking and the Ecology of Human Origins,” Current Anthropology.  December 1999, pp. 567-88.


Chapter 12.  Climate and Culture

Allman, John Morgan.  Evolving Brains  (see Ch.11).

Boorstin, Daniel J.  The Discoverers:  A History of Man’s Search to Know His World and Himself.  New York:  Random House, 1985.

Diamond, Jared.  Guns, Germs, and Steel:  The Fates of Human Societies.  New York:  W. W. Norton & Co., 1997.

Editors of Time-Life Books.  People of the Ice and Snow.  Alexandria, VA:  Time-Life Books, 1994.

Fagan, Brian, The Little Ice Age:  How Climate Made History 1300–1850, New York: Basic books, 2000.

Feder, Kenneth L.  The Past in Perspective  (see Chapter 11).

Lewin, Roger.  The Origin of Modern Humans  (see Chapter 11).

McGovern, Thomas H., and Sophia Perdikaris.  “The Vikings’ Silent Saga,” Natural History.  Vol. 109, No. 8, October 2000, pp. 50-56.

Packer, Craig and Jean Clottes.  “When Lions Ruled France,” Natural History.  Vol. 109, No. 9, November 2000, pp. 52-57.


Chapter 13.  Earth’s Past Tell Us About Our Future?

Ackerman, Jennifer.  “New Eyes on the Oceans,” National Geographic  (see Chapter 10).

Mann, Michael E., Raymond S. Bradley, and Malcolm K. Hughes, “Global-scale tempertaure patterns and climate forcing over the past six centuries,” Nature, April 23, 1998, pp. 779-87.

Petit, J.R., D. Raynaud, C. Lorius, J. Jouzel, G. Delaygue, N.I. Barkov, and V.M. Kotlyakov, 2000.  “Historical Isotopic Temperature Record from the Vostok Ice Core,” Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change.  Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tenn., U.S.A., from http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/trends/temp/vostok/jouz_tem.htm. Revised January 2000.

Subcommittee on Global Change Research, Committee on Environment and Natural Resources of The National Science and Technology Council, Our Changing Planet:  The FY 2000 U.S. Global Change Research Program.  Washington, D.C.:  Environment Division, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President, Washington, D.C., 20502.

Comments