Acknowledgements

The people who made the books possible

GSS Staff

Director:     Alan Gould

Series Authors:    
Richard Golden       
Alan Gould       
Cary Sneider
John Michael Seltzer   
 Eloise Farmer   
Karen Hoffman   
John Erickson
Sylvia Velasquez
 John Pickle           
Ted Robertson   
Brian Rogan
Joe Snider    

TERC Authors
:    Jodi Asbel-Clarke, Tim Barclay  (Hands-On Universe Project)
   
Editors:    Kay Fairwell    Carl Babcock

Librarian:    Marian Drabkin

Assistants:    
Harriette Searle   
Miho Rahm
Precious Perry 
Jennifer Yim   
Peggy Storrs
Andrys Basten
Hemma Mistry  
Fiona Potter
Lucy Liu

Design:    Jim Hurd Design

Illustrations:    Audre Newman    Alan Gould        Neeraja Venkateswaran    Cary Sneider    Liz Unger

Reviewers by Book

A Changing Cosmos

The following individuals reviewed all or part of A Changing Cosmos and provided feedback and suggestions:

Carleton Pennypacker, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Michael Kran, Amateur Astronomer

Tom Morin, Belmont High School, New Hampshire.

Kristin Nagy-Katz, Evaluator, Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California, Berkeley

A New World View

Fritjof Capra, physicist and author, Berkeley, California

Reginald Barrett, Forest Ecologist, University of California, Berkeley, California

Thomas Suchanek, Aquatic Ecologist, University of California, Davis, California

Susan Ustin, Forest Ecologist, University of California, Davis, California

Ted Nordhaus, Headwaters Sanctuary Project, Berkeley, California

Mary Bullwinkel, Director of Communications, The Pacific Lumber Company, Scotia, California

David Shaw, Site Director, Wind River Canopy Crane Research Facility, Carson, Washington

Earl Ford, Ecosystem Staff Officer, Gifford Pinchot National Forest, Vancouver, Washington

Assistance was also provided by: Nahid Khazenie, Elizabeth Carter, Marian Diamond, Chelsea Eis, Gabriel Grinder, Fernando Gruas, Scott Stowell, Jacqueline Barber, Lincoln Bergman, Tim Barnett, Lynn Talley, Ali Omar, John Chin, Elmer Robinson, Tracy Yokoi, Tom Sawyer, Arn Hayden, and Peter Epstein.

ABCs of Digital Earth Watch

 We would like to thank the talented people who have reviewed the written materials, software activities, and/or hands-on activities. Their insightful comments and suggestions have been incorporated in this version.

Staff at the Museum of Science, Boston
Cary Sneider, Brian Rogan, David Rabkin, Lesley Kennedy, Ling Hsaio, Emily Simpson, Michael Schiess, Suzanne Spring, Nina Nolan, Ellen Busher, Loren Stolow, Alissa Flowers Nicol, Bill Waller, Adetunji Onamade, Marianne Dunne, Daisy Frederick, Marc Klureza, Susan Timberlake, Ingeborg Endter, Bob Bonazoli, Matt Pacewicz, David Sittenfeld, Eric Workman, Carolyn Kirdahy, Maureen McConnell, Sue Stoessel, David Cantor-Adams, Sharon Horrigan, Henry Robinson, Lynn Baum, Jeannine Trezvant, Robert Greene, Marion Tomusiak, and Cathy Clemens.

Visiting at the Museum of Science
Steve McDonald, UMASS Boston; Candace Julyan, Educator; Kathy Cunningham and Matt Amengual, GIS specialists; Momcilo Babic, Plant Geneticist; Beth Nicholson, Chairperson, Save the Harbor, Save the Bay; Teon Edwards, Remote Sensing Specialist at TERC; Crystal Schaaf, Remote Sensing Scientist, Boston University; Bill Lawler, education specialist in technology and computers; Dona Gartrell, President of The Learning Community Group; Don McCasland, Educator, Blue Hill Observatory, Milton, MA; Abbie Nguyen, Fenway High School, MA; Jack Sheridan, Science Supervisor for Boston Public Schools; Jodi Davenport, PhD student in Perception, MIT; and Mary O’Connor, Environmental Defense Fund.

Teachers of the Maine Mathematics and Science Alliance, Augusta, Maine
Page Keeley, Janre Mullins, Dalene Dutton, Tom Stocker, Laurie Haines, Tom Stocker, Michael G. McGraw, Rachel Madison, Laurie Spooner, Deb Avalone-King, Marianne Dubois, Kathy Hockman, Shawn Carlson, Ralph F. Keyes, Kelly Dole, Matthew Geary, Kim Glidden, Susan Klemmer, Steven Knowles, and Harold B. Mosher.

Remote Sensing Specialists, Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Lexington, MA
Gary Gustafson, Robert D’Entremont, Jennifer Hegarty, Alan Lipton, Mark Leidner, and Rick Rosen.

Digital Earth Watch ProjectPartners
University of Maine: Jeff Beaudry
University of New Hampshire: Rita Freuder, Annette Schloss, Barry Rock, Mike Gagnon, William Armstrong
Indiana State University: Paul Mausel, Dennis Skelton, Nelson Dias, Vijay Lula.

Climate Change

Dian Gaffen, Air Resources Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Silver Spring, Maryland.

Michael McCracken, science coordinator of the U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, D.C.

Steven Seidel, White House Council on Environmental Quality, The White House, Washington, D.C.

Cameron Wake, Climate Change Research Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire.

Assistance was also provided by: Nahid Khazenie, Elizabeth Carter, Marian Diamond, Chelsea Eis, Gabriel Grinder, Fernando Gruas, Scott Stowell, Jacqueline Barber, Lincoln Bergman, Tim Barnett, Lynn Talley, Ali Omar, John Chin, Elmer Robinson, Tracy Yokoi, Tom Sawyer, Arn Hayden, and Peter Epstein.

Energy Flow

Dr. Joseph Snider, Oberlin College, Ohio

Dr. Janet Luhmann, solar scientist at the Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley.

Energy Use

Mary Anne Piette, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Berkeley, California

Dr. Joseph Snider, Oberlin College, Ohio

Life and Climate

Nina Catubig Nolan, formerly an environmental scientist, currently an instructor at the Museum of Science, Boston, MA.

John Pickle,
formerly an atmospheric scientist at Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Lexington, MA, and currently a creator of on-line education materials at the Museum of Science, Boston, MA.

Assistance on this volume was also provided by
Kathleen Crane,
Professor of Oceanography, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C.

Losing Biodiversity

 We especially want to thank the following individuals who provided resource materials and reviewed Losing Biodiversity: Reginald H. Barrett, Elizabeth Collier, Mary Connolly, Jerry DeSilva, Eloise Farmer, Harold H. Heady, Margaret Race, Esther Railton-Rice, and James D. Yoakum. 

Sam Albrecht of the National Bison Association reviewed Chapter 2, "Return from Near Extinction."  Brian Walton, Janet Linthicum and the staff of the Santa Cruz Predatory Bird Research Group spent a day sharing the very inspiring research story behind peregrine falcon restoration efforts.  Photographs from the SCPBRG web site are included in Chapter 6, "Field Trip to the Predatory Bird Research Group."  Art Sussman generously allowed us to reproduce the "Biodiversity vs. Time" graph from Dr. Art's Guide to Planet Earth.  Aileen Shieu and Araceli Curiel-Alvarez assisted with editing and graphics.

Ozone

Malcolm Ko, Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Lexington, Massachusetts.

Hillary Snell, Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Lexington, Massachusetts.

Courtney Scott, Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Lexington, Massachusetts.

GSS Advisers

Hans Anderson, president, National Science Teachers Association, Washington, D.C.

Roger Bybee, executive director, Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.

Victor J. Mayer, Earth Systems Education Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Senta Raizen, director, National Center for Improving Science, Education, Washington, D.C.

F. James Rutherford, director, Project 2061, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C.

Steven Schneider, professor, Department of Biological Sciences and Institute for International Studies, Stanford University, Stanford, California

Herbert Thier, director, Science Education for Public Understanding of Science (SEPUP) Project, Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California

Thanks to Teacher Reviewers

Development of the Global Systems Science course would not have been possible without the creative input of the more than 150 teachers, listed below, who suggested improvements in the printed materials, and developed new laboratory activities. We are indebted to them and to their students, who helped to test the course materials.

 Tracey Ackerman
Mother of Mercy H.S.
Cincinnati, Ohio

Terry Anderson
NRHEG High School
New Richland, Minn.

Martha Andreski
North Springs H.S.
Atlanta, Georgia

Jay Atkins
Director of Education
Winston-Salem, North
Carolina

Valerie Ayala
Valley High School
Sacramento, California

Janet Baker
Tucson High Magnet
Tucson, Arizona

Linda Baker
Davis High School
Davis, California

Bob Banõs
Lowell High School
San Francisco, California

Gary Barrigar
Elizabethton H.S.
Elizabethton, Tennessee

James Beaber
Fort Lupton H.S.
Fort Lupton, Colorado

Richard Beadle
Spokane School Dist.
Spokane, Washington

Arnold Beckerman
Jamaica High School
Jamaica, New York

Larry Beeson
North High School
Sioux, Iowa

Doug Bell
Centennial H.S.
Gresham, Oregon.

Deborah Bennett
Hamilton County H.S.
Jasper, Florida

Joan Bennett
Baton Rouge Magnet H.S.
Baton Rouge, Louisana

Dianne Bernaciak
Hudson High School
Hudson, Ohio

Charles Berry
Eastwood H.S.
El Paso, Texas

Daphne Blyden
Boschulte J.H.S.
St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin
Islands

Burt Blumkin
New Rochelle H.S.
New Rochelle, New York

Susan Boone
Elk Grove H.S.
Elk Grove, California

Daniel Borick
Norcum High School
Portsmouth, Virginia

Evelyn Bradshaw
Cleveland Hts. H.S.
Cleveland Hts., Ohio

Gayle Brickert-Albrecht
Tucson Magnet H.S.
Tucson, Arizona

Patricia Brown
Brownell-Talbot H.S.
Omaha, Nebraska

Sarah E. R. Brown
Phelps Career H.S.
Washington, D.C.

Lori Bryner-Goldstein
Northglenn H.S.
Northglenn, Colorado

Gro Buer
BEST Alternative H.S.
Kirkland, Washington

Keith Camburn
West Mecklenburg H.S.
Charlotte, North Carolina

Joycelin Cayetano
Polytechnic H.S.
Sun Valley, California

Alan Chan
Glencoe High School
Hillsboro, Oregon.

Jayson Chang
Concord High School
Concord, California

John G. Clarke
Tewksbury H.S.
Tewksbury, Massachusetts

Dora J. Coleman
Provine H.S.
Jackson, Mississippi

Gerard Collins
Wakefield H.S.
Arlington, Virginia

Paul Conway
Glendale Jr/Sr H.S.
Flinton, Pennsylvania

Gary Courts
Miamisburg H.S.
Miamisburg, Ohio

Deborah Crough
Saddleback H.S.
Santa Ana, California
Linda Culp
Thorndale H.S.
Thorndale, Texas

Bonita Deiter
Jefferson W. H.S.
Meriden, Kansas

Don Deresz
Ctr. Environmental Ed.
Miami, Florida

Christine Donovan
Sunnyside H.S.
Tucson, Arizona

Jimmy Early
Van Horn Eng./Tech
Independence, Missouri

Tom Estill
Lyme School
Lyme, New Hampshire

Christine Falta
Englewood H.S.
Englewood, Colorado

Eloise Farmer
Torrington High
Torrington, Conneticut

William Feddeler
Macomb MSTC
Warren, Michigan

Aaron Feik
Northshore Schools
Bothell, Washington

Neil Fetter
Drew College Prep
San Francisco. California

Kathleen Field
Haverhill H.S.
Haverhill, Massachusetts

Sharon Fisher
North High School
Des Moines, Iowa

H.L. Flisser
Scarsdale M.S
Scarsdale, New York

Adele Gomez
St. John’s School
San Juan, Puerto Rico

Kathleen Green
Hillsboro High School
Beloit, Wisconsin

Susan R. Green
Miami Beach Sr H.S.
Miami Beach, Florida

Joni Grisham
Pittsburg High School
Pittsburg, California

William Hanneken
Turpin High School
Cincinnati, Ohio

Manisha Hariani
Roanoke Valley School
Roanoke, Virginia

Thomas Havel
Stadium High School
Tacoma, Washington

Elizabeth Hedgepeth
Mt. Ararat School
Topsham, Maine

Sharon Heineman
Sabinal High School
Sabinal, Texas

Charlsa Henderson
Wellington High
Wellington, Florida

Dean Heyenga
Oceanside High
Leucadia, California

Lynn Higgins
Proviso Twnship H.S.
Maywood, Illinois

Linda Hill
Bothel High School
Bothell, Washington

Steve Hilton
L.H. Watkins H.S.
St. Louis, Missouri

Phyllis Hoar
G H Braddock Sr. H.S.
Miami, Florida

Glenda Holmes
Wilson Senior H.S.
Washington, D.C.

Jennifer Huntsperger
Gadsden H.S.
Anthony, New Mexico

Chad Husting
Bishop Fenwick H.S.
Middletown, Ohio

Matt Huston
Flint Hill School
Oakton, Virginia

Craig Huff
University High
Irvine, California

James Ingram
San Andreas H.S.
Holister, California

Teresa Jimarez
Coronado H.S.
El Paso, Texas

Elizabeth Jones
Springbrook H.S.
Silver Springs, Maryland

Connie Jones
Enka High School
Enka, North Carolina

Dean Karagianes
Mira Loma H.S.
Sacramento, California

Carl Katsu
Fairfields Area School
District
Fairfield, Pennsylvania

Arnold Kaufman
Jefferson High School
Brooklyn, New York
LaToy Kennedy
GAMSEC-MC A&T State
Greendboro, North Carolina

Hellon Key
Oakland Technical High
Oakland, California

Rick Kincaid
Glenelg High School
Glenelg, Maryland

Wesley Knapp
Scotia-Glenville Schools
Scotia, New York

Marjory Knights
MacArthur Sr. N. H.S.
Hialeah, Florida

Frank Kowalczyk
State College High
State College, Pennsylvania

Al Krulock
Mission High School
Mission, Texas

Joseph Krupens
Bell J. High School
San Diego, California

R. James Kurtz
Univ. Detroit Jesuit H.S.
Detroit, Michigan

Victoria Lamkey
Wichita N. High School
Wichita, Kansas

Peter Leddy
Norton High School
Norton, Massachusetts

Steve Lege
Davis Senior H.S.
Davis, California

Angela Lewis
Stoneman High School
Parkland, Florida

Jim Lockard
Shawnee Mission E. H.S.
Prarie Village, Kansas

Janice Lord-Walker
Skyline High School
Oakland, California

Kerry Lohr
Highline High School
Seattle, Washington

James Lucey
Wilton High School
Wilton, Conneticut

Melissa Marchino
Heritage High School
Littleton, Colorado

Michael Martin
Iowa City Schools
Iowa City, Iowa

Carl Max
Los Alamos H.S.
Los Alamos, New Mexico

Megan McCarthy
Kingston Junior High
Kingston, Washington

Elizabeth McCullough
Thomas Johnson H.S.
Frederocl, Maryland

Jake McDermott
Brattleboro Union H.S.
Brattleboro, Vermont

Robin McGlohn
Burton Academy
San Francisco, California

Nancy McIntyre
Chaminade College Prep
West Hills, California

Donna Millett
Attleboro High School
Attleboro, Massachusetts

Hector Montano
Canutillo High School
Canutillo, Texas

Catalina Moreno
Boston Public Schools
Boston, Massachusetts

Donna Morey
Fair High School
Little Rock, Arkansas

Isabella Morrison
Shorewood H.S.
Seattle, Washington

Sandra Morrow
Hot Springs H.S.
Truth or Consquences, New
Mexico

Cindy Y. H. Moss
Cicero-N. Syracuse H.S.
Cicero, New York

Irene Munoz
North CarolinaaliforniaR
Boulder, Colorado

Stephen Nakano
Waipahu High School
Waipahu, Hawaii

Patricia Owens
Homewood H.S.
Birmingham, Alabama

Shelly Pelham
Garrison Forest School
Owings Mills, Maryland

Glenda Pepin
Dorsey H.S.
Los Angeles, California

Kenneth Pitman
Heritage High School
Littleton, Colorado

David Podd
Rio Tierra J.H.S.
Sacramento, California

Gilbert Richardson
Shabazz High School
Madison, Wisconsin

Amy Ryken
Berkeley High School
Berkeley, California

Faimon Roberts
LSU Lab School
Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Robena Robinett
North Caroline H.S.
Ridgely, Maryland
Brian Rogan
Dublin School
Dublin, New Hampshire

Lina Russ
Alice Deal H.S.
Washington, D.C.

Thomas Russell
San Pedro High School
San Pedro, California

Fernando Salvador
City as School H.S.
New York, New York

Sallie Sanders
North Atlanta H.S.
Atlanta, Georgia

Erin Servillo-Gross
AIM Center
Trenton, New Jersey

Alan Sills
West Essex Reg. H.S.
North Caldwell, New Jersey

L. Trevor Smith
Troy High School
Troy, Michigan

Doug Squire
Union H.S.
Union, Oregon

Joseph Stanislaus
Samoa High School
Pago Pago, American
Samoa

John Stegmaier
Gunnison High School
Gunnison, Colorado

Thelma Stepan
Holy Cross H.S.
Waterbury, Conneticut

Michelle Stern
Terra Linda H.S.
San Rafael, California

Elizabeth Stewart
Westside High School
Memphis, Tennessee

Ellen Strother-Pitts
Western Sr. H.S.
Baltimore, Maryland

Richard Sturgeon
Glastonbury High
Glastonbury, Conneticut

Cindy Suchanek
Mira Loma H.S.
Sacramento, California

Christopher Sullivan
E. Longmeadow H.S.
E. Longmeadow,
Massachusetts

Irene Swanson
Northridge High
Northridge, California

Teresa Thompson
Grapevine H.S.
Grapevine, Texas

Jane Ann Toth
East High School
Kansas City, Missouri

Louis Tremblay
Avon High School
Avon, Conneticut

Jon Valasek
School for Math/Sci.
Columbus, Mississippi

Larry Walker
Academy of Sci/Tech
Conroe, Texas

Charles Walsh
Vianney High School
St. Louis, Missouri

Margery Weitkamp
Chaminade College Prep.
West Hills, California

Tom Wellington
Wilton High School
Wilton, Conneticut

Tom Wellnitz
Shore Country School
Beverly, Massachusetts

Fred Wetzel
Science Hill H.S.
Johnson City, Tennessee

Jane Whitaker
Lenoir City H.S.
Lenoir, Tennessee

Rich White
Cholla High School
Tucson, Arizona

Patrick Wildermuth
Lowell High School
San Francisco, California

Belinda Wight
John T. Hoggard H.S.
Wilmington, North Carolina

Peter Wilding
San Rafael H.S.
San Rafael, California

Bill Williams
Williamsburg Scools
Williamsburg, Virginia

Rocky Wolf
Sonora High School
Sonora, California

Agnes Wu
Greyhills High School
Tuba City, Arizona

Ron Yob
Native American Learning
Center
Grand Rapids, Michigan

Jonathan Yoder
North Salem High School
Salem, Oregon.

Paul Zastrow
Hood River Valley High
Hood River, Oregon.

Anne Zellinger
Kahuku High School
Kahuku, Hawaii

Glenn Zwanzig
DuPont Manual H.S.
Louisville, Kentucky

Sources of Support

NIGEC. Development and publication of the Global Systems Science series was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Institute for Global Environmental Change (NIGEC) through the NIGEC Western Regional Center (WESTGEC) at the University of California, Davis (DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-90ER61010). Noreen Dowling, Joseph Knox, Linda Ono, and Thomas Suchanek provided assistance to this project on behalf of NIGEC and WESTGEC.

NSF. The opportunity to involve high school teachers in the development of this project was made possible by a grant from the Teacher Enhancement Program of the National Science Foundation (Grant #TPE 9155393). This grant enabled us to invite 125 teachers to test these materials with their students, then come to Berkeley for three weeks, where they reported on trial test results, suggested improvements in the printed materials, and developed new laboratory activities. We are indebted to Larry G. Enochs and Wayne Sukow, Program Directors of the National Science Foundation, as well as to many teachers and students whose insights, ideas, and hard work have helped bring the GSS series to fruition.

NASA. Support from NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) has included printing and distribution of the GSS Books under a Memorandum of Understanding between NASA and the University of California at Berkeley. Nahid Khazenie provided assistance on behalf of NASA/ESE. NASA ESE also funded the enhancement of GSS to make it part of the Digital Library for Earth System Education (http://www.dlese.org/) Financial support does not constitute an endorsement by DOE, NSF, or NASA of the views expressed in this book.

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